Baptism is the first and basic sacrament of Christian initiation. In the Western or Latin Rite of the Church, baptism is usually conferred today by pouring water three times on the recipient’s head, while reciting the baptismal formula: “I baptize you in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit” (cf. Matthew 28:19). In the Eastern Catholic Churches immersion or submersion is used, and the formula is: “The servant of God, N., is baptized in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit.
Confirmation is the second sacrament of Christian initiation. “It is called Chrismation (in the Eastern Churches: anointing with holy myron or chrism) because the essential rite of the sacrament is anointing with chrism. It is called Confirmation because it confirms and strengthens baptismal grace.” It is conferred by “the anointing with Sacred Chrism (oil mixed with balsam and consecrated by the bishop), which is done by the laying on of the hand of the minister who pronounces the sacramental words proper to the rite.
Eucharist is the sacrament (the third of Christian initiation, the one that, as stated in CCC 1322, “completes Christian initiation”) by which Catholics partake of the Body and Blood of Jesus Christ and participate in his one sacrifice. The first of these two aspects of the sacrament is also called Holy Communion. The bread (which must be wheaten, and which is unleavened in the Latin, Armenian and Ethiopic Rites, but is leavened in most Eastern Rites) and wine (which must be from grapes) used in the Eucharistic rite are, in Catholic faith, transformed in all but appearance into the Body and Blood of Christ, a change that is called transubstantiation. Only a bishop or priest is enabled to be a minister of the Eucharist, acting in the person of Christ himself.
The Sacrament of Penance is the first of two sacraments of healing. The Catechism of the Catholic Church mentions in the following orders different names of the sacrament, calling it the sacrament of conversion, Penance, confession, forgiveness and Reconciliation. It is the sacrament of spiritual healing for a baptized person from the distancing from God resulting from sins committed. If a man sins after baptism, he cannot have baptism as a remedy; Baptism, which is a spiritual regeneration, cannot be given a second time.
Reconciliation involves four elements: Contrition (the Penitent’s sincere remorse for wrongdoing or sin, repentance, without which the rite has no effect); Confession to a Priest with the faculty to hear confessions (Canon 966.1) – while it may be spiritually helpful to confess to another, only a Priest has the power to administer the sacrament; Absolution by the Priest; and, Satisfaction or Penance.
Matrimony, or Marriage, like Holy Orders, is a sacrament that consecrates for a particular mission in building up the Church, and that provides grace for accomplishing that mission. This sacrament, seen as a sign of the love uniting Christ and the Church, establishes between the spouses a permanent and exclusive bond, sealed by God.
Holy Orders is the sacrament by which a man is made a bishop, a priest, or a deacon, and thus dedicated to be an image of Christ. A bishop is the minister of this sacrament. Ordination as a bishop confers the fullness of the sacrament, making the bishop a member of the body of successors of the Apostles, and giving him the mission to teach, sanctify, and govern, along with the care of all the Churches.
Anointing of the Sick is the second sacrament of healing. In this sacrament a priest anoints the sick with oil blessed specifically for that purpose. “The anointing of the sick can be administered to any member of the faithful who, having reached the use of reason, begins to be in danger by reason of illness or old age” (canon 1004; cf. CCC 1514). A new illness or a worsening of health enables a person to receive the sacrament a further time.